Clinical Nutrition

Created and edited by 
Registered Dietitian 
Myrna Haag RD, LD/N



  1. Akter S, Eguchi M, Nanri A, Kochi T, Kashino I, Kuwahara K, Hu H, Miki T, Kabe I, Mizoue T. Association of dietary and serum magnesium with glucose metabolism markers: The Furukawa Nutrition and Health Study. Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2018 Apr;24:71-77. doi: 10.1016/j.clnesp.2018.01.011. Epub 2018 Feb 9. PubMed PMID: 29576367.

  2. Bale BF, Doneen AL. The Bale/Doneen Method: Paradigm Shift in CVD Prevention. Preceptorship Course; 2018 March 09; Las Vegas, Nevada, United States of America.

  3. Capone K, Sriram S, Patton T, Weinstein D, Newton E, Wroblewski K, Sentongo T. Effects of Chromium on Glucose Tolerance in Infants Receiving Parenteral Nutrition Therapy. Nutr Clin Pract. 2017 Jun 1:884533617711162. doi: 10.1177/0884533617711162. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 28570117.

  4. Chen S, Jin X, Shan Z, Li S, Yin J, Sun T, Luo C, Yang W, Yao P, Yu K, Zhang Y, Cheng Q, Cheng J, Bao W, Liu L. Inverse Association of Plasma Chromium Levels with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes: A Case-Control Study. Nutrients. 2017 Mar 17;9(3). pii: E294. doi: 10.3390/nu9030294. PubMed PMID: 28304331; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5372957.

  5. Ige AO, Ajayi OA, Adewoye EO. Anti-inflammatory and insulin secretory activity in experimental type-2 diabetic rats treated orally with magnesium. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2018 Apr 10. pii: /j/jbcpp.ahead-of-print/jbcpp-2017-0104/jbcpp-2017-0104.xml. doi: 10.1515/jbcpp-2017-0104. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29634483.

  6. Kaya T, Akçay EÜ, Ertürk Z, Ergenç H, Tamer A. The relationship between vitamin D deficiency and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in patients with diabetes. Turk J Med Sci. 2018 Apr 30;48(2):424-429. doi: 10.3906/sag-1712-28. PubMed PMID: 29714465.

  7. Quan H, Zhang H, Wei W, Fang T, Chen D, Chen K. A crossover study of the combination therapy of metformin and exenatide or biphasic insulin aspart 30 in overweight or obese patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exp Ther Med. 2017 Oct;14(4):3279-3287. doi: 10.3892/etm.2017.4863. Epub 2017 Aug 2. PubMed PMID: 28912879; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5585756.

  8. Shobana N, Aruldhas MM, Tochhawng L, Loganathan A, Balaji S, Kumar MK, Banu LAS, Navin AK, Mayilvanan C, Ilangovan R, Balasubramanian K. Transient gestational exposure to drinking water containing excess hexavalent chromium modifies insulin signaling in liver and skeletal muscle of rat progeny. Chem Biol Interact. 2017 Nov 1;277:119-128. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2017.09.003. Epub 2017 Sep 11. Erratum in: Chem Biol Interact. 2018 Feb 9;:. PubMed PMID: 28911802.

  9. Tang W, Chen Y, Pan M, Chen L, Zhang L, Wang T, Zhang X, Zhang P, Zheng C, Yu B. [Nutrition management in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2017 Apr 25;20(4):411-416. Chinese. PubMed PMID: 28440522.

  10. Trubnikova OA, Tarasova IV, Mamontova AS, Kagan ES, Maleva OV, Barbarash OL. [PREDICTORS OF MODERATE COGNITIVE DISORDERS IN PATIENTS WITH CORONARY HEART DISEASE AND TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS]. Klin Med (Mosk). 2016;94(1):31-5. Russian. PubMed PMID: 27172719.

  11. Zaidi SM, Ghafoor A, Randhawa FA. HBA1C AS AN INDIRECT MARKER OF HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA IN TYPE-2 DIABETES MELLITUS. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2015 Jul-Sep;27(3):601-3. PubMed PMID: 26721018.

Estimated Average

  1. Greenwood DA, Blozis SA, Young HM, Nesbitt TS, Quinn CC. Overcoming Clinical Inertia: A Randomized Clinical Trial of a Telehealth Remote Monitoring Intervention Using Paired Glucose Testing in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes. J Med Internet Res. 2015 Jul 21;17(7):e178. doi: 10.2196/jmir.4112. PubMed PMID: 26199142; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4527012.

  2. Loh TP, Sethi SK, Wong MS, Tai ES, Kao SL. Relationship between measured average glucose by continuous glucose monitor and HbA1c measured by three different routine laboratory methods. Clin Biochem. 2015 May;48(7-8):514-8. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2015.02.012. Epub 2015 Mar 1. PubMed PMID: 25738920.


  1. Bale BF, Doneen AL. The Bale/Doneen Method: Paradigm Shift in CVD Prevention. Preceptorship Course; 2018 March 09; Las Vegas, Nevada, United States of America.

  2. Chhibber-Goel J, Singhal V, Parakh N, Bhargava B, Sharma A. The Metabolite Trimethylamine-N-Oxide is an Emergent Biomarker of Human Health. Curr Med Chem. 2017 Nov 24;24(36):3942-3953. doi: 10.2174/0929867323666160830104025. Review. PubMed PMID: 27573063.

  3. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. [Internet]. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press; 2005. 941. Available from: https://www.nal.usda.gov/sites/default/files/fnic_uploads/energy_full_report.pdf. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17226/10490.

  4. Kasselman LJ, Vernice NA, DeLeon J, Reiss AB. The gut microbiome and elevated cardiovascular risk in obesity and autoimmunity. Atherosclerosis. 2018 Apr;271:203-213. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2018.02.036. Epub 2018 Mar 2. Review. PubMed PMID: 29524863.

  5. Kaysen GA, Johansen KL, Chertow GM, Dalrymple LS, Kornak J, Grimes B, Dwyer T, Chassy AW, Fiehn O. Associations of Trimethylamine N-Oxide With Nutritional and Inflammatory Biomarkers and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients New to Dialysis. J Ren Nutr. 2015 Jul;25(4):351-6. doi: 10.1053/j.jrn.2015.02.006. Epub 2015 Mar 19. PubMed PMID: 25802017; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4469547.

  6. Mendelsohn AR, Larrick JW. Dietary modification of the microbiome affects risk for cardiovascular disease. Rejuvenation Res. 2013 Jun;16(3):241-4. doi: 10.1089/rej.2013.1447. PubMed PMID: 23656565.

  7. Obeid R, Awwad HM, Kirsch SH, Waldura C, Herrmann W, Graeber S, Geisel J. Plasma trimethylamine-N-oxide following supplementation with vitamin D or D plus B vitamins. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2017 Feb;61(2). doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201600358. Epub 2016 Oct 10. PubMed PMID: 27569255.

  8. Tang WH, Wang Z, Kennedy DJ, Wu Y, Buffa JA, Agatisa-Boyle B, Li XS, Levison BS, Hazen SL. Gut microbiota-dependent trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) pathway contributes to both development of renal insufficiency and mortality risk in chronic kidney disease. Circ Res. 2015 Jan 30;116(3):448-55. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.305360. Epub 2014 Nov 5. PubMed PMID: 25599331; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4312512.

  9. Zhang AQ, Mitchell SC, Smith RL. Dietary precursors of trimethylamine in man: a pilot study. Food Chem Toxicol. 1999 May;37(5):515-20. PubMed PMID: 10456680.

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