Clinical Nutrition

Created and edited by 
Registered Dietitian 
Myrna Haag RD, LD/N

General Chemistry


  1. Bale BF, Doneen AL. The Bale/Doneen Method: Paradigm Shift in CVD Prevention. Preceptorship Course; 2018 March 09; Las Vegas, Nevada, United States of America.

  2. Gröber U, Schmidt J, Kisters K. Magnesium in Prevention and Therapy. Nutrients. 2015 Sep 23;7(9):8199-226. doi: 10.3390/nu7095388. Review. PubMed PMID: 26404370; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4586582.

  3. Nielsen FH. Magnesium deficiency and increased inflammation: current perspectives. J Inflamm Res. 2018 Jan 18;11:25-34. doi: 10.2147/JIR.S136742. eCollection 2018. Review. PubMed PMID: 29403302; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5783146.

  4. Uwitonze AM, Razzaque MS. Role of Magnesium in Vitamin D Activation and Function. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2018 Mar 1;118(3):181-189. doi: 10.7556/jaoa.2018.037. PubMed PMID: 29480918.

  5. Welch AA, Skinner J, Hickson M. Dietary Magnesium May Be Protective for Aging of Bone and Skeletal Muscle in Middle and Younger Older Age Men and Women: Cross-Sectional Findings from the UK Biobank Cohort. Nutrients. 2017 Oct 30;9(11). pii: E1189. doi: 10.3390/nu9111189. PubMed PMID: 29084183; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5707661.

Creatinine Kinase (CK)

  1. Abeya FC, Lumori BAE, Akello SJ, Annex BH, Buda AJ, Okello S. Incidence and predictors of 6 months mortality after an acute heart failure event in rural Uganda: The Mbarara Heart Failure Registry (MAHFER). Int J Cardiol. 2018 Mar 29. pii: S0167-5273(17)37111-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2018.03.110. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29655949.

  2. Bodor GS. Biochemical Markers of Myocardial Damage. EJIFCC. 2016 Apr 20;27(2):95-111. eCollection 2016 Apr. PubMed PMID: 27683523; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4975226.

  3. Di Mauro D, Currò M, Trimarchi F, Vecchio M, Rizzo G, Barreca D, Visalli G, Ientile R, Caccamo D. Role of Genetic Background in Cardiovascular Risk Markers Changes in Water Polo Players. Int J Sports Med. 2018 May;39(5):390-396. doi: 10.1055/s-0044-101459. Epub 2018 Mar 21. PubMed PMID: 29564841.

  4. Hughes JD, Denton K, S Lloyd R, Oliver JL, De Ste Croix M. The Impact of Soccer Match Play on the Muscle Damage Response in Youth Female Athletes. Int J Sports Med. 2018 May;39(5):343-348. doi: 10.1055/s-0044-101147. Epub 2018 Feb 23. PubMed PMID: 29475207.

  5. Karaismailoğlu E, Dikmen ZG, Akbıyık F, Karaağaoğlu AE. A statistical approach to evaluate the performance of cardiac biomarkers in predicting death due to acute myocardial infarction: time-dependent ROC curve. Turk J Med Sci. 2018 Apr 30;48(2):237-245. doi: 10.3906/sag-1708-108. PubMed PMID: 29714434.

  6. Kouvelos GN, Milionis HJ, Arnaoutoglou EM, Chasiotis G, Gartzonika C, Papa NK, Tzimas P, Matsagkas MI. Postoperative levels of cardiac troponin versus CK-MB and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein for the prediction of 1-year cardiovascular outcome in patients undergoing vascular surgery. Coron Artery Dis. 2011;22(6):428-34. doi: 10.1097/MCA.0b013e3283487d96. PubMed PMID: 21730823.

  7. Traiperm N, Gatterer H, Wille M, Burtscher M. Cardiac troponins in young marathon runners. Am J Cardiol. 2012 Aug 15;110(4):594-8. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2012.03.052. Epub 2012 May 10. PubMed PMID: 22579084.

  8. Tritto ACC, Amano MT, De Cillo ME, Oliveira VA, Mendes SH, Yoshioka C, Roschel H, Camara NOS, Gualano B, Artioli GG. Effect of rapid weight loss and glutamine supplementation on immunosuppression of combat athletes: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Exerc Rehabil. 2018 Feb 26;14(1):83-92. doi: 10.12965/jer.1835154.577. eCollection 2018 Feb. PubMed PMID: 29511657; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5833973.

e(GFR), Non-African Descent

  1. Choi HM, Hyun YY, Lee KB, Kim H. High estimated glomerular filtration rate is associated with coronary artery calcification in middle-aged Korean men without chronic kidney disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2015 Jun;30(6):996-1001. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfv109. PubMed PMID: 25994662.

  2. Di Iorio BR, Bellizzi V, Bellasi A, Torraca S, D’Arrigo G, Tripepi G, Zoccali C. Phosphate attenuates the anti-proteinuric effect of very low-protein diet in CKD patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2013 Mar;28(3):632-40. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfs477. Epub 2012 Nov 19. PubMed PMID: 23166309.

  3. Graczyk M. [Secondary hyperparathyroidism–treatment review]. Wiad Lek. 2015;68(2):179-82. Review. Polish. PubMed PMID: 26181154.

  4. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. [Internet]. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press; 2005. 941. Available from: https://www.nal.usda.gov/sites/default/files/fnic_uploads/energy_full_report.pdf. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17226/10490.

  5. Karhapää P, Pihlajamäki J, Pörsti I, Kastarinen M, Mustonen J, Niemelä O, Tuomi H, Kuusisto J. Glomerular filtration rate and parathyroid hormone are associated with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in men without chronic kidney disease. J Intern Med. 2012 Jun;271(6):573-80. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2011.02471.x. Epub 2011 Nov 15. PubMed PMID: 21995281.                                   

  6. Mariani LH, White MT, Shults J, Anderson CA, Feldman HI, Wolf M, Reese PP, Denburg MR, Townsend RR, Lo JC, Cappola AR, Carlow D, Gadegbeku CA, Steigerwalt S, Leonard MB; CRIC Study Investigators. Increasing use of vitamin D supplementation in the chronic renal insufficiency cohort study. J Ren Nutr. 2014 May;24(3):186-93. doi: 10.1053/j.jrn.2014.01.015. Epub 2014 Mar 7. PubMed PMID: 24613295; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4023561.

  7. Moore LW, Nolte JV, Gaber AO, Suki WN. Association of dietary phosphate and serum phosphorus concentration by levels of kidney function. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Aug;102(2):444-53. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.114.102715. Epub 2015 Jun 3. PubMed PMID: 26040641.

  8. Nelms M, Sucher KP, Lacey K, Roth SL. Nutrition Therapy & Pathophysiology. 2 ed. Cossio Y, editor. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning; 2007. Chapter 18, Diseases of the Renal System; p.526,534,544. 

  9. Sharma S, McFann K, Chonchol M, de Boer IH, Kendrick J. Association between dietary sodium and potassium intake with chronic kidney disease in US adults: a cross-sectional study. Am J Nephrol. 2013;37(6):526-33. doi: 10.1159/000351178. Epub 2013 May 15. PubMed PMID: 23689685; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3919025.

  10. Smyth A, Dunkler D, Gao P, Teo KK, Yusuf S, O’Donnell MJ, Mann JF, Clase CM; ONTARGET and TRANSCEND investigators. The relationship between estimated sodium and potassium excretion and subsequent renal outcomes. Kidney Int. 2014 Dec;86(6):1205-12. doi: 10.1038/ki.2014.214. Epub 2014 Jun 11. PubMed PMID: 24918156.

  11. Taketani Y, Koiwa F, Yokoyama K. Management of phosphorus load in CKD patients. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2017 Mar;21(Suppl 1):27-36. doi: 10.1007/s10157-016-1360-y. Epub 2016 Nov 28. Review. PubMed PMID: 27896453.

  12. Weir MR. Short-term effects of vitamin D receptor activation on serum creatinine, creatinine generation, and glomerular filtration. Kidney Int. 2011 Nov;80(10):1016-7. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.265. PubMed PMID: 22042029.

  13. Wu HL, Sung JM, Kao MD, Wang MC, Tseng CC, Chen ST. Nonprotein calorie supplement improves adherence to low-protein diet and exerts beneficial responses on renal function in chronic kidney disease. J Ren Nutr. 2013 Jul;23(4):271-6. doi: 10.1053/j.jrn.2012.09.003. Epub 2012 Nov 4. PubMed PMID: 23131574.

  14. Yoshida T, Kumagai H. [Chronic kidney disease and nutrition]. Clin Calcium. 2016 Mar;26(3):369-74. doi: CliCa1603369374. Review. Japanese. PubMed PMID: 26923973.

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